John Ray, leading 17th-century English naturalist and botanist who contributed significantly to progress in taxonomy. Printed by R. Harbin, for William Innys, at the Prince’s-Arms in St Paul’s Church Yard, London 1717. This is the 3rd edition of Miscellaneous discourses, the last by Ray before his death, and delayed in publication. Among these sermons were his discourses on The wisdom of God manifested in the works of the creation,[3] and Deluge and Dissolution of the World. Hasta 1670, firmó como John Wray y a partir de entonces usó "Ray" tras verificar que era esa la forma que su familia había utilizado antes que él. In 1844, the Ray Society was founded, named after John Ray, and has since published over 160 books on natural history. The biological works were usually in Latin, the rest in English. He is buried in the churchyard of St Peter and St Paul where there is a memorial to him. Historia Plantarum (The History of Plants) is a botany book by John Ray, published in 1686. His classification of plants in his Historia Plantarum, was an important step towards modern taxonomy. [21]p153 The list in order of holdings is: Ray's biographer, Charles Raven, commented that "Ray sweeps away the litter of mythology and fable... and always insists upon accuracy of observation and description and the testing of every new discovery". By. The subshrubs formed a single group and the herbs into 21 groups. The shrubs he placed in 2 groups, Spinosi (Berberis etc.) [b] He held many college offices, becoming successively lecturer in Greek (1651), mathematics (1653), and humanity (1655), praelector (1657), frias (1657), and college steward (1659 and 1660); and according to the habit of the time, he was accustomed to preach in his college chapel and also at Great St Mary's, long before he took holy orders on 23 December 1660. Londini : typis Mariae Clark: prostant apud Henricum Faithorne, 1686-1704. [4][5] It was at Trinity that he came under the influence of John Wilkins, when the latter was appointed master of the college in 1659. Frases i termes més freqüents. From this time onwards he seems to have depended chiefly on the bounty of his pupil Francis Willughby, who made Ray his constant companion while he lived. The first two volumes were published in 1686 and 1688 and were over 1000 pages each covering the plants of Britain and Europe. Historia plantarum species hactenus editas aliasque insuper multas noviter inventas & descriptas complectens ... Large paper issue by John Ray. Historia plantarum generalis, Volume 3 By John Ray. His classification of plants in his Historia Plantarum, was an important step towards modern taxonomy. From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby arranged that after his death, Ray would have 6 shillings a year for educating Willughby's two sons. Historia plantarum generalis, Volum 1 John Ray Visualització completa - 1693. [14], Ray's work on plant taxonomy spanned a wide range of thought, starting with an approach that was predominantly in the tradition of the herbalists and Aristotelian, but becoming increasingly theoretical and finally rejecting Aristotelianism. Historia plantarum v 1. Retrieved from, Lazenby, Elizabeth Mary (1995). Traité d'Anatomie et de Physiologie Végétale, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, Pflanzengeographie auf Physiologischer Grundlage, An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants, Timeline of biology and organic chemistry, Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historia_Plantarum_(Ray_book)&oldid=968394267, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 July 2020, at 03:45. Historia Plantarum was published in three volumes: vol 1 in 1686, vol 2 in 1688, vol 3 in 1704. John Ray FRS was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists. Ray insisted that fossils had once been alive, in opposition to his friends. Published: 1686 . [7] In 1673, Ray married Margaret Oakley of Launton in Oxfordshire; in 1676 he went to Middleton Hall near Tamworth, and in 1677 to Falborne (or Faulkbourne) Hall in Essex. [13]p10 Ray's works were directly influential on the development of taxonomy by Carl Linnaeus. It organises a programme of events of interest to science students in the college. Ray was the son of the village blacksmith in Black Notley and attended the grammar He published important works on plants, animals, and natural theology.His classification of plants in his Historia Plantarum was an important step towards modern taxonomy. Subject(s): Natural and Physical Sciences: Collection: Heralds of Science. 11, and adds what he calls ť Anr. ', 2 vols. However, he lost the position thirteen years later when, in 1662 and with strong Puritan views, he declined to take the oath to the Act of Uniformity after the Restoration. Instead, Ray considered species' lives and how nature worked as a whole, giving facts that are arguments for God's will expressed in His creation of all 'visible and invisible' (Colossians 1:16). Historia Plantarum was published in three volumes: vol 1 in 1686, vol 2 in 1688, vol 3 in 1704. 1, p. 27. Ray's biographer, Charles Raven, commented that "Ray sweeps away the litter of mythology and fable... and always insists upon accuracy of observation and description and the testing of every new discovery". Its main importance is that Ray recanted his former acceptance of fossils, apparently because he was theologically troubled by the implications of extinction. VII. In 1986, to mark the 300th anniversary of the publication of Ray's Historia Plantarum, there was a celebration of Ray's legacy in Braintree, Essex. His life there was quiet and uneventful, although he had poor health, including chronic sores. From then on, he used 'Ray', after "having ascertained that such had been the practice of his family before him". Book Material. Ray's works were directly influential on the development of taxonomy by Carl Linnaeus. John Ray made a profound impact on the development of natural history in the 17th century and beyond and has been described as Britain's greatest field naturalist. John Ray o Wray (29 de noviembre de 1627 en la villa de Black Notley, cerca de Braintree (Essex) - 17 de enero de 1705 en Black Notley) fue un naturalista inglés, a veces llamado el padre de la historia natural británica. ed. In 1671, he presented the research of Francis Jessop on formic acid to the Royal Society. Ray kept writing books and corresponded widely on scientific matters, collaborating with his doctor and contemporary Samuel Dale. In the spring of 1663 Ray started together with Willughby and two other pupils (Philip Skippon and Nathaniel Bacon[12]) on a tour through Europe, from which he returned in March 1666, parting from Willughby at Montpellier, whence the latter continued his journey into Spain. It was formed in 1997 in response to the global environmental crisis and the challenges of sustainable development and environmental stewardship. Instead he classified plants by observation according to similarities and differences. He is widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists.[9]. Despite his early adherence to Aristotelian tradition, his first botanical work, the Catalogus plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium (1660),[15] was almost entirely descriptive, being arranged alphabetically. ‘The Lord hath created medicines out of the earth, and he that is wise will not abhor them.’ Ecclesiastes Chap. Ray gave an early description of dendrochronology, explaining for the ash tree how to find its age from its tree-rings. A prolific author, traveller and correspondent with life-long interests in linguistics and theology as well as the natural sciences his most famous work is the Historia Plantarum. trees (arbores), shrubs (frutices), subshrubs (suffrutices) and herbaceous plants (herbae) and lastly grouping them by common characteristics. Historia Plantarum. RAY, JOHN (or Wray, 1627 – 1705). He published important works on botany, zoology, and natural theology. John Ray FRS (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists. • Armstrong, Patrick (2000). 1 by itself (R 394), not mentioning vol. Ray, John; Camel, Georg Joseph; Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de Typis Mariæ Clark, prostant apud Henricum Faithorne [etc. View Metadata. 27. 2011. ix + 612 pp. From then on, he used 'Ray', after "having ascertained that such had been the practice of his family before him". Samuel Dale (1659-1739), Physician and Geologist. The only libraries with substantial holdings are all in England. This was his most popular work. 0 Ratings 0 Want to read; 0 Currently reading; 0 Have read; This edition published in 1686 by Typis Mariæ Clark, prostant apud Henricum Faithorne [etc.] About this book. In the book, ... John Ray (Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède; Gilbert White (The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick (A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (Philosophie Zoologique) 19th century. in Londini. Ray, however, saw some manuscript notes of his as early as 1660, probably through the agency of Samuel Hartlib; and when Jung's pupil, Johann Vagetius, printed the master's ‘Isagoge Phytoscopica’ in 1678, Ray incorporated most of it, with full acknowledgment, into his ‘Historia Plantarum’ (vol. ISBN 978-0-85244-516-7. On leaving Cambridge in 1662, Ray decided to attempt the first systematic recording of the entire natural world. Ray, John, 1627-1705 Camel, Georg Joseph, 1661-1706 Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de, 1656-1708 Type. Historia plantarum : species hactenus editas aliasque insuper multas noviter inventas & descriptas complectens ... by Ray, John, 1627-1705; Camel, Georg Joseph, 1661-1706; Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de, 1656-1708; Burndy Library, donor. [6][7] When Ray found himself unable to subscribe as required by the ‘Bartholomew Act’ of 1662 he, along with 13 other college fellows, resigned his fellowship on 24 August 1662 rather than swear to the declaration that the Solemn League and Covenant was not binding on those who had taken it. English Scientific Botany In this work Ray describes some 18,000 plants and set up the species as the basic unit of taxonomy. The trees he divided into 8 groups, e.g. "[11], His religious views were generally in accord with those imposed under the restoration of Charles II of England, and (though technically a nonconformist) he continued as a layman in the Established Church of England.[10]. ... Memorial to John Ray in the churchyard of St Peter and St Paul in Black Notley. Publication info The work on the first two volumes was supported by subscriptions from the President and Fellows of the Royal Society. [6], After leaving Cambridge in 1663 he spent some time travelling both in Britain and the continent. Terms of Service He published Historia Plantarum which was an important step to modern taxonomy. £80", University of California Museum of Paleontology Berkeley, The first biological species concept (Evolving Thoughts), De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis at Europeana, John Ray and taxonomy. John Ray, Historia plantarum (London, 1686-1704), vol. John Ray (1627-1705), a naturalist who had been teaching at Oxford for 13 years, ... For now I want to stick with Ray’s major work, his massive three-volume Historia Plantarum (1686-1704). ... Historia plantarum. It was in the vein later called, This includes some important discussion of fossils. He made important contributions to botany, zoology and natural theology. Morris, A. D. (1974). Historia Plantarum was written some time between c. 350 BC and c. 287 BC in ten volumes, of which nine survive. He received his early education at the Braintree grammar school and was admitted to Catherine Hall at Cambridge University in 1644. The Historia Plantarum Generalis of John Ray, Book I : a translation and commentary. John Ray; Augustus Quirinus Rivinus; Joseph Pitton de Tournefort; Sebastien Vaillant; Gallery; Contact Us Jean Bauhin by Jean Bauhin’s Historia Plantarum Universalis (Yverdon, 1650). He published important works on botany, zoology, and natural theology. Ray was the first person to produce a biological definition of species, in his 1686 History of Plants: Ray published about 23 works, depending on how they are counted. The correspondence of John Ray, consisting of selections from the philosophical letters published by Dr. Derham and original letters of John Ray in the collection of the British Museum . This edition doesn't have a description yet. [7] Until 1670, he wrote his name as John Wray. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 67, 120–124. Publication info: London :Printed for the Ray Society,1848. Hardback. [10] Tobias Smollett quoted the reasoning given in the biography of Ray by William Derham: "The reason of his refusal was not (says his biographer) as some have imagined, his having taken the solemn league and covenant; for that he never did, and often declared that he ever thought it an unlawful oath: but he said he could not say, for those that had taken the oath, that no obligation lay upon them, but feared there might. THE HISTORIA PL ANT ARUM OF JOHN RAY three volumes of Ray's Historia plantarum were published respec-tively in 1686, 1688, and 1704, and are duly described by Sir Geoffrey Keynes in his bibliography of the author.1 Wing2 records vol. He was among the first to attempt a biological definition for the concept of species. King's College London, The John Ray Initiative: connecting Environment and Christianity, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009), An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I), An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II, An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III, An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV, Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Ray&oldid=983016684, Alumni of St Catharine's College, Cambridge, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2016, Wikipedia articles with Botanist identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 October 2020, at 19:09. John Ray (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) ... His classification of plants in his Historia Plantarum, was an important step towards modern taxonomy. After studying at Cambridge University, he travelled widely and wrote numerous books relating to plants, birds and insects. Ray, John (1627-1705) Historia plantarum, species hactenus editas aliasque insuper multas noviter inventas & descriptas complectens. Gracewing. After the first two volumes, he was urged to compose a complete system of nature. 38. v. 4, quoted on the title page of volume 2 of Bauhin’s Historia. [17][6], Ray's system, starting with his Cambridge catalogue, began with the division between the imperfect or lower plants (Cryptogams), and perfect (planta perfecta) higher plants (Seed plants). [1], John Ray was born in the village of Black Notley in Essex. The plants gathered on his British tours had already been described in his Catalogus plantarum Angliae (1670), which formed the basis for later English floras. John Ray's writings proclaimed God as creator whose wisdom is "manifest in the works of creation", and as redeemer of all things. The son of a blacksmith, John Ray was born in Black Notley, Essex. [27], In 1986, to mark the 300th anniversary of the publication of Ray's Historia Plantarum, there was a celebration of Ray's legacy in Braintree, Essex. In 1667 Ray was elected Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1669 he and Willughby published a paper on Experiments concerning the Motion of Sap in Trees. His classification of plants in his Historia Plantarum, was an important step towards modern taxonomy. From then on, he used 'Ray', after "having ascertained that such had been the practice of his family before him". The John Ray Society (a separate organisation) is the Natural Sciences Society at St Catharine's College, Cambridge. A "John Ray … Until 1670, he wrote his name as John Wray. [26], The John Ray Society (a separate organisation) is the Natural Sciences Society at St Catharine's College, Cambridge. From then on, he used 'Ray', after "having ascertained that such had been the practice of his family before him".[22]. Common terms and phrases. The following year he left England, accompanied by three of his former pupils, to tour the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, Austria, Switzerland and France. Finally, in 1679, he removed to his birthplace at Black Notley, where he afterwards remained. (1985) with John Ray (1627-1705) as Author Joannis Raii De variis plantarum methodis dissertatio brevis (1985) with John ... Historia plantarum, species hactenus editas aliasque insuper multas noviter inventas et descriptas complectens... auctore Joanne Raio,... Tomus primus. The John Ray Trust, founded in 1986 to mark the 300 th anniversary of the publication of Ray’s most famous work Historia Plantarum, ensures that he receives the public recognition he so richly deserves and inspires future generations to follow in his footsteps … Historia Plantarum Species hactenus editas aliasque insuper multas noviter inventas & descriptas complectens: In qua agitur primò De Plantis in genere John Ray Ray, John (1686). He is said to have been born in the smithy, his father having been the village blacksmith. Until 1670, he wrote his name as John Wray. Including the various editions, there are 172 works of Ray, of which most are rare. Close-up of memorial to John Ray. In this work Ray describes some 18,000 plants and set up the species as the basic unit of taxonomy. [16] However at the end of the work he appended a brief taxonomy[17] which he stated followed the usage of Bauhin and other herbalists. Until 1670, he wrote his name as John Wray. It organises a programme of events of interest to science students in the college. Ray's student, Isaac Barrow, helped Francis Willughby learn mathematics and Ray collaborated with Willughby later. Historia plantarum : species hactenus editas aliasque insuper multas noviter inventas & descriptas complectens . The third volume lacked plates, so Ray's assistant, the apothecary James Petiver, published Petiver's Catalogue, effectively a supplement containing the plates, in parts in 1715–1764. Each edition enlarged from the previous edition. JRI aims to teach appreciation of nature, increase awareness of the state of the global environment, and to promote a Christian understanding of environmental issues. Written in Latin. In this volume, he moved on from the naming and cataloguing of species like his successor Carl Linnaeus. Publication. Historia plantarum generalis, Volume 3 John Ray Full view - 1693. The History of Plants is the naturalist John Ray's greatest work. DSI. The latter he divided by life forms, e.g. Ray rejected the system by which species were classified according to an either/or type system. After studying at Braintree school, he was sent at the age of sixteen to Cambridge University: studying at Trinity College. Book Info; Icons Metadata; Author: Ray, John; Camel, Georg Joseph; Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de. As of 2017, the Society had published 179 volumes. Publication date 1686 Topics Botany Publisher Londini : Typis Mariæ Clark, prostant apud Henricum Faithorne [etc.] PhD thesis Newcastle University, Synopsis methodica avium & piscium: opus posthumum (, "Some early British Ornithologists and their works. By: Ray, John, - Lankester, Edwin, - Derham, W. (William), - Ray Society. [28], The John Ray Initiative (JRI) is an educational charity that seeks to reconcile scientific and Christian understandings of the environment. Historia plantarum generalis, Volum 2 John Ray Visualització completa - 1693. John Ray (November 29, 1627 to 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist. and Non Spinosi (Jasmine etc.). 1686), criticising, expanding, and supplementing it. To this end he compiled brief synopses of British and European plants, a Synopsis Methodica Avium et Piscium (published… [29], British naturalist (1627–1705), known for his work on plant classification, "In fact, the book was Ray's, based on preliminary notes by, The third volume lacked plates, so his assistant, 7th ed. His model was an account by Bauhin of the plants growing around Basel in 1622 and was the first English county flora, covering about 630 species. Historia plantarum generalis, Volume 2 John Ray Full view - 1693. - Historiae plantarum tomus secundus, cum duplice indice... Accessit Nomenclator botanicus anglo-latinus. Pomiferae (including apple and pear). Agnes Arber (1943) suggests that its size, as well as its Latin text, led to its lack of popularity, but it’s nonetheless an important resource. Ray was chosen minor fellow[a] of Trinity in 1649, and later major fellow. [13], In the 1690s, he published three volumes on religion—the most popular being The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation (1691), an essay describing evidence that all in nature and space is God's creation as in the Bible is affirmed. [21] His first publication, while at Cambridge, was the Catalogus plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium (1660), followed by many works, botanical, zoological,theological and literary. John Ray (November 29, 1627–January 17, 1705) was an English naturalist, sometimes referred to as the father of English natural history.Until 1670 he wrote his name as John Wray.. In John Ray: Important publications … he constructed his masterwork, the Historia Plantarum, three huge volumes that appeared between 1686 and 1704. Published material. Work. ISBN 978-0903874-43-4. ], 1686 Part of: Historia plantarum 24. John Ray (1627-1705) and Francis Willughby (1635-1672)", https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/003591577406700215, "John Ray's Cambridge Catalogue (1660) translated and edited by P.H.Oswald and C.D.Preston. [2] Initially at Catharine Hall, his tutor was Daniel Duckfield, and later transferred to Trinity where his tutor was James Duport, and his intimate friend and fellow-pupil the celebrated Isaac Barrow. Ray was also highly regarded as a tutor and he communicated his own passion for natural history to several pupils. Ray rejected the system of dichotomous division by which species were classified according to a pre-conceived, either/or type system[further explanation needed], and instead classified plants according to similarities and differences that emerged from observation. i. London: The Ray Society. At Cambridge, Ray spent much of his time in the study of natural history, a subject which would occupy him for most of his life, from 1660 to the beginning of the eighteenth century. Ray himself published an account of his foreign travel in 1673, entitled Observations topographical, moral, and physiological, made on a Journey through part of the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France. In 1986, to mark the 300th anniversary of the publication of Ray's Historia Plantarum, there was a celebration of Ray's legacy in Braintree. Publisher: Typis Mariæ Clark, prostant apud Henricum Faithorne [etc.] Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology for Ray to edit; while Ray used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, 1704). Of species into 8 groups, e.g in St Paul ’ s greatest achievement, Historia 24. 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( 1995 ) early description of dendrochronology, explaining for the Ray Society,1848 modern taxonomy Willughby two! And natural theology 1661-1706 Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de Henricum Faithorne, 1686-1704,. Plants and set up the species as the basic unit of taxonomy ): natural and Physical Sciences Collection! Faithorne, 1686-1704 p10 Ray 's works were directly influential on the title page of Volume 2 of ’. ( London, 1686-1704 a Memorial to him, he removed to his friends the 3rd edition of discourses... [ 18 ], 1686 Part of: Historia Plantarum was written some travelling! Retrieved from, Lazenby, Elizabeth Mary ( 1995 ) a botany book by John Ray ( November,! Was founded in 1844 of extinction Lankester, Edwin, - Ray,! His father having been the village of Black Notley, quoted on the first using..., book I: a Companionship Between Science and Religion blacksmith, John ;,. 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