PERSIAN ART AND LITERATURE SOCIETY, INC. This decorative aspect shows the daily events of the man in his perennial struggle for survival. Instead, his approach accommodated the entire spectrum of creativity and expression in Persian literature. Both versions were later lost, but their contents survived in the works of historians writing in Arabic. Literature . Though he is from Khorassan and sways between allegiance to Nima Youshij and Akhavan Saless, in his poetry he shows the influences of Hafiz and Mowlavi. Notable writers include Vazha-Pshavela (pseudonym of Luka Razikashvili), who is considered modern Georgia’s greatest genius. Simin Behbahani contributed to a historic development in the form of the ghazal, as she added theatrical subjects, and daily events and conversations into her poetry. [21] It was a major literary language in the empire. Khayyam's line, "A loaf of bread, a jug of wine, and thou", is known to many who could not say who wrote it, or where: گر دست دهد ز مغز گندم نانی The Registered Agent on file for this company is Ali Mazaheri and … Times have changed. The company's File Number is listed as 0100794092. What Nima Youshij founded in contemporary poetry, his successor Ahmad Shamlou continued. In the 10th century they controlled most of eastern Iran and present-day Afghanistan. After the Abbasids came to power (750 CE), the Iranians became the scribes and bureaucrats of the Islamic Caliphate and, increasingly, also its writers and poets. The influence of Iranians (e.g. The first volume of Moin Dictionary was published in 1963. 'eyshi bovad ān na had-de har soltāni. Rumi, in particular is renowned both as a poet and as the founder of a widespread Sufi order. This idea was propagated by notable literary figures such as Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda and Abolqasem Aref, who challenged the traditional system of Persian poetry in terms of introducing new content and experimentation with rhetoric, lexico-semantics, and structure. Also highly regarded is Siyasatnama, by Nizam al-Mulk, a famous Persian vizier. Merchants from Persia, China, India, Africa, and Europe were all found in Baghdad. Éditions Bruno Doucey published a selection of forty-eight poems by Garus Abdolmalekian entitled Our Fists under the Table (2012),[45] translated into French by Farideh Rava. The art of Persians people in ancient times reflected their inclination to represent the reality of their lifes and history with clarity; without complications in the messages that the art works intended to transmit. The most significant prose writings of this era are Nizami Arudhi Samarqandi's "Chahār Maqāleh" as well as Zahiriddin Nasr Muhammad Aufi's anecdote compendium Jawami ul-Hikayat. "[11] During the same Safavid era, many subjects of the Iranian Safavids were patrons of Persian poetry, such as Teimuraz I of Kakheti. He translated works by, among others, Farid al-Din Attar, Rumi, Ferdowsi, Omar Khayyam, Saadi and Sanai. Such inspirations did not mean blindly copying Western models but, rather, adapting aspects of Western literature and changing them to fit the needs of Iranian culture. And you and I in wilderness encamped— Happy new year به همه دوستاران فرهنگ،هنر و ادبیات، سال نو مبارک باد Nima held that the formal technique dominating classical poetry interfered with its vitality, vigor and progress. Carpet-weaving is undoubtedly one of the most distinguished manifestations of Persian culture and art, and dates back to ancient Persia. Second, she was the first modern Iranian woman to graphically articulate private sexual landscapes from a woman's perspective. [9] Most of what remains consists of the royal inscriptions of Achaemenid kings, particularly Darius I (522–486 BC) and his son Xerxes. [39][40] Persian poetry is some of the most beautiful poetry in the world and the Persians cultivated four unique types of poetry; the “epic”, the “ghasideh” a purpose poem, the “masnavi” a narrative poem, and the “ghazal” a lyrical poem.In the 13th and 14th centuries Saadi, Rumi and Hafez perfected the ghazal, lyrical poems but filled with passion. Iran Online: Literature Persian Literature Wikipedia Houshang Golshiri Adabiyat va Farhang. The Persian alphabet was also borrowed from the Arabs with the addition of only a few signs for Persian sounds unknown to Arabic. The stories are told over a period of one thousand and one nights, and every night she ends the story with a suspenseful situation, forcing the King to keep her alive for another day. The oldest texts are the Gāthās, 16 (or perhaps 17) short hymns written in an archaic form of an Old Iranian language called Avestan, named for the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrianism. It broadened the perception and thinking of the poets that came after him. Save for Later. The tolerant and benevolent policy of Mughal Emperor Akbar and his patronage of learning, coupled with internal peace and prosperity and freedom from foreign danger, made possible the conditions in which art and literature flourished. List some ways in which the Persian Empire's art was influenced by surrounding regions Describe Persian architecture, sculptures and bas-reliefs Explain where Persian temples and palaces were found Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The travelogue of Nasir-i Khusraw (d. 1088), Safar-nama, in which he relates his pilgrimage to Mecca and his travels in Syria, Egypt, and Arabia, represents the maturation of Persian prose. He is considered the founder of Sepid poetry according to Behbahani. The new and modern approaches to writing is introduced and several genres have developed specially in the field of short story. Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ made an Arabic version during the 8th century that was later retranslated into Persian. Saraj was not the first such publication in the country, but in the field of journalism and literature it launched a new period of change and modernization. Another critic, Ahmad Kasravi, an experienced authority on literature, attacked the writers and poets whose works served despotism.[30]. Holmes 151 The Shahnameh Manuscript Cochran 4 in the Metropolitan Museum of Art Index. Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians or Iranians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی ) is one of the world’s oldest and richest literary traditions. In this period, the influence of the western literature on the Iranian writers and authors is obvious. Mohammad Taghi Bahar had the title "king of poets" and had a significant role in the emergence and development of Persian literature as a distinct institution in the early part of the 20th century. [47], Oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language, دشمن دانا بلندت می‌کند. Panegyric masters such as Rudaki were known for their love of nature, their verse abounding with evocative descriptions. In 1930 (1309 AH), after months of cultural stagnation, a group of writers founded the Herat Literary Circle. Guards no longer rely on their internal terrorist detectors and have adopted more sophisticated methods.… Sep 4, 2015 - Explore Fati R's board "Persian Art and .....", followed by 846 people on Pinterest. They also contributed to the standardization of form and style in poetry. p. 363: "Nizami Ganja’i, whose personal name was Ilyas, is the most celebrated native poet of the Persians after Firdausi. Given the social and political climate of Persia (Iran) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which led to the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906–1911, the idea that change in poetry was necessary became widespread. 987 likes. Persian art, an introduction. This is the currently selected item. Persian literature, body of writings in New Persian (also called Modern Persian), the form of the Persian language written since the 9th century with a slightly extended form of the Arabic alphabet and with many Arabic loanwords. Young men, slaves or not, also, served wine at banquets and receptions, and the more gifted among them could play music and maintain a cultivated conversation. The greatest achievements of Persian art occurred during the rule of the Achaemenid (c. 550–330 bc) and Sassanid (ad 224–642) dynasties. From shop ZorbaTheBuddhaArt. (p. 9), love toward young pages, soldiers, or novices in trades and professions, Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir, Persian Speculative Art and Literature Award, Academy of Persian Language and Literature, Encyclopedia of Library and ... - Google Books, "Šāh-nāma Translations ii. Persian Art & Literature Society is a Texas Domestic Non-Profit Corporation filed on September 5, 2003. The conquest of the Achaemenian Empire by Alexander the Great about 330 bce caused a radical break in Iranian culture. The first group to write poems in the new style consisted of Mahmud Farani, Baregh Shafi’i, Solayman Layeq, Sohail, Ayeneh and a few others. These forces of good stood in opposition to the evil spirit of chaos. Finally, she transcended her own literary role and experimented with acting, painting, and documentary film-making. Persian art Earliest manifestations of art in Persia (Iran) prior to the 7th-century development of Islamic art and architecture. Persian art and Literature or Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and has been strong in many media including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and sculpture. [23] The Ottomans produced thousands of Persian literary works throughout their century long lifespan. Ferdowsi, together with Nezāmi, may have left the most enduring imprint on Georgian literature (...)[17]. It can be argued that almost all advocates of modernism in Persian literature, from Akhundzadeh, Kermani, and Malkom Khan to Dehkhoda, Aref, Bahar, and Taqi Rafat, were inspired by developments and changes that had occurred in Western, particularly European, literatures. The frame story of Shahrzad seems to have been added in the 14th century. [1][2][3] It spans over two-and-a-half millennia. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Safavids – High Point for Literature … Professor Emeritus of Persian, University of Leiden, The Netherlands. Some of Persia's best-beloved medieval poets were Sufis, and their poetry was, and is, widely read by Sufis from Morocco to Indonesia. So strong is the Persian inclination to versifying everyday expressions that one can encounter poetry in almost every classical work, whether from Persian literature, science, or metaphysics. It traces the historical development of the Persian language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. While initially overshadowed by Arabic during the Umayyad and early Abbasid caliphates, New Persian soon became a literary language again of the Central Asian and West Asian lands. Giunashvili remarks on the connection of Georgian culture with that of the Persian literary work Shahnameh: The names of many Šāh-nāma heroes, such as Rostom-i, Thehmine, Sam-i, or Zaal-i, are found in 11th- and 12th-century Georgian literature. Some of the Sultans had their own court historians. A few notable classical poets have arisen since the 19th century, among whom Mohammad Taghi Bahar and Parvin Etesami have been most celebrated. Persian was the official court language of the empire, and for some time, the official language of the empire. The 13th century marks the ascendancy of lyric poetry with the consequent development of the ghazal into a major verse form, as well as the rise of mystical and Sufi poetry. For example, Rumi, one of the best-loved Persian poets, born in Balkh (in modern-day Afghanistan) or Wakhsh (in modern-day Tajikistan), wrote in Persian and lived in Konya (in modern-day Turkey), at that time the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia. By distancing himself from the obligations imposed by older poetry and some of the limitations that had entered the Nimai’ poem, he recognized the role of prose and music hidden in the language. Last year as I helped a curator in the Department of Islamic Art prepare for the exhibition Bazm and Razm: Feast and Fight in Persian Art, I thought about what information we would be able to provide about the paintings and objects on display, and how much we would have to leave out. /Doshman-e dānā beh'tar az dust-e nādān ast./. See also the article on Sufi poetry. There are also a number of more literary translations by scholars such as A. J. Arberry. No single text devoted to literary criticism has survived from pre-Islamic Iran. Some researchers have quoted the Sho'ubiyye as asserting that the pre-Islamic Iranians had books on eloquence, such as 'Karvand'. Some of Tajikistan's prominent names in Persian literature are Golrokhsar Safi Eva,[26] Mo'men Ghena'at,[27] Farzaneh Khojandi,[28] Bozor Sobir, and Layeq Shir-Ali. For almost 500 years Iranian languages were not used in writing. Persian Art and Literature – Vancouver Serving the Farsi-speaking community of Vancouver Main menu. [44], In the twenty-first century, a new generation of Iranian poets continues to work in the New Poetry style and now attracts an international audience thanks to efforts to translate their works. These inscriptions contain royal edicts and similar texts composed in a very formal style; they contributed little to the development of literature in Iran. During the early ʿAbbāsid period (8th–9th centuries), the activity of translators was lively. The oldest surviving work of Persian literary criticism after the Islamic conquest of Persia is Muqaddame-ye Shahname-ye Abu Mansuri, which was written during the Samanid period. A reluctant follower of Nima Yushij, Mehdi Akhavan-Sales published his Organ (1951) to support contentions against Nima Yushij's groundbreaking endeavors. Slaves were also bought or received as gifts. Despite that Asia Minor (or Anatolia) had been ruled various times prior to the Middle Ages by various Persian-speaking dynasties originating in Iran, the language lost its traditional foothold there with the demise of the Sassanian Empire. Although he accepted some of its aesthetic properties and extended them in his poetry, he never ceased to widen his poetic experience by emphasizing the "natural order" of this art. Persian literature spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic, Caucasian, and Indic poets and writers have also used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures. It spans over two-and-a-half millennia. The beginning of this change was exemplified by an incident in the mid-19th century at the court of Nasereddin Shah, when the reform-minded prime minister, Amir Kabir, chastised the poet Habibollah Qa'ani for "lying" in a panegyric qasida written in Kabir's honor. Persian Literature in Mughal Period. Under Sassanid rule (224 CE–651) Persian arts and architecture experienced a general renaissance. In the didactic genre one can mention Sanai's Hadiqat-ul-Haqiqah (Garden of Truth) as well as Nizami's Makhzan-ul-Asrār (Treasury of Secrets). It is published by the Tehran University Press (UTP) under the supervision of the Dehkhoda Dictionary Institute. Persian may refer to: . Described as one of the great literatures of humanity,[4] including Goethe's assessment of it as one of the four main bodies of world literature,[5] Persian literature has its roots in surviving works of Middle Persian and Old Persian, the latter of which date back as far as 522 BCE, the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription, the Behistun Inscription. Excerpts from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh has also been translated into Swedish prose by Namdar Nasser and Anja Malmberg. A year later, another group calling itself the Kabul Literary Circle was founded in the capital. Thriving Persian literature, undoubtedly shaped by historic events, lends itself to this approach: one can observe vast differences between the Persian literature … Khorasani style, whose followers mostly were associated with Greater Khorasan, is characterized by its supercilious diction, dignified tone, and relatively literate language. Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda. His translations have had a great impact on numerous modern Swedish writers, among them Karl Wennberg, Willy Kyrklund and Gunnar Ekelöf. The finding indicates that traditional literature is a dominant genre with 38 books as it follows with 31 books of the modern fantasy genre. وانگه من و تو نشسته در ویرانی Kelileh va Demneh, translated from Indian folk tales, can also be mentioned in this category. Conversely, Georgians consider these translations works of their native literature. Literature & Fiction Poetry ... Rumi, Persian art, Rumi on love, wall art, Poetry, love gifts, Rumi quote, middle eastern art, boho gifts, boho decor, wall hanging, sufi ZorbaTheBuddhaArt. The Šāh-nāma was translated, not only to satisfy the literary and aesthetic needs of readers and listeners, but also to inspire the young with the spirit of heroism and Georgian patriotism. “Almost every page of Georgian literary works and chronicles [...] contains names of Iranian heroes borrowed from the Shahnama” (ibid). The company's File Number is listed as 0100794092. However, it made its way well beyond the vast borders of the longest-lived Persian dynasty, which at its greatest extent encompassed all of present-day Iran and Iraq and stretched from the eastern Mediterranean (including Anatolia and Egypt) to Pakistan, and from parts […] Kabir saw poetry in general and the type of poetry that had developed during the Qajar period as detrimental to "progress" and "modernization" in Iranian society, which he believed was in dire need of change. Sepid poetry is a developing branch of Nimai’ poetry built upon Nima Youshij's innovations. After the coming of Islam, this text was translated from Pahlavi into Arabic prose. This style has its roots in the Timurid era and produced the likes of Amir Khosrow Dehlavi, and Bhai Nand Lal Goya. [43], A poet of the last generation before the Islamic Revolution worthy of mention is Mohammad-Reza Shafiei-Kadkani (M. Sereshk). The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States established the Association of Persian Culture and Literature with the goal of promoting Persian arts and culture... Read More. It is a pioneering work on the practice of Persian literary historiography and the emergence and development of Persian literature as a distinct institution in the early part of the 20th century. Omissions? Pre-Islamic Persian literature consists of religious texts, the most notable of which is the Avesta, a collection of liturgic fragments, and the later Pahlavi writing of the Sassanid period. See more ideas about Art, Iranian art, Persian. Watch Queue Queue The works of the Sāmānids have been preserved only as fragments, but they show clearly that already in the 10th century most of the formal and generic characteristics of classical Persian poetry were in use. Popularizing translations by Coleman Barks have presented Rumi as a New Age sage. In turn, Shahrokh Meskoob worked on Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, using the principles of modern literary criticism. Guards no longer rely on their internal terrorist detectors and have adopted more sophisticated methods.… 'Aref employed the ghazal, "the most central genre within the lyrical tradition" (p.  88), to write his "Payam-e Azadi" (Message of Freedom). Border guards were highly efficient at distinguishing respectable Canadian citizens from potential members of the Axis of Evil. Dehkhoda program is not limited to only learning the Persian language, but it also offers to learn Iranian culture, literature, and art. [19] The Ottomans, which can "roughly" be seen as their eventual successors, took this tradition over. Both, especially the Kabul publication, had little success in becoming venues for modern Persian poetry and writing. Also highly regarded in the contemporary Persian literature lexical corpus are the works of Dr. Mohammad Moin. It is generally accepted that they contain the original teachings of the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra), who lived in the first half of the 1st millennium bce. Persian literature differs from the common definition of “literature” in that it is not confined to lyrical compositions, to poetry or imaginative prose, because the central elements of these appear, to greater or lesser degrees, in all the written works of the Persians. Nima Youshij paid attention to an overall harmonious rhyming and created many experimental examples to achieve this end.[38]. They consist of inscriptions of the Sāsānian kings and religious texts of the Manichaeans, the followers of the gnostic prophet Mani (3rd century ce). Besides theology and poetry, the writing of history was also encouraged. To a certain extent, the Turkish folk literature which has survived till our day, reflects the influence of Islam and the new life style and form of the traditional literature of Central Asia after the adoption of Islam. The Persian empire was vast, and one of the lasting legacies of the empire, aside from their fierce battles and dominance in the known world, was their influence on architecture and art as a whole. The conquest was completed about 640. Nima thought that any change in the construction and the tools of a poet’s expression is conditional on his/her knowledge of the world and a revolutionized outlook. In Persian poetry, Mehdi Akhavan Sales has established a bridge between the Khorassani and Nima Schools. [12] The work deals with the myths and legends of Shahnameh and is considered the oldest surviving example of Persian prose. Emotional romantic poetry was not something new however, as works such as Vis o Ramin by As'ad Gorgani, and Yusof o Zoleikha by Am'aq Bokharai exemplify. He offered an individual approach. At the same time, the writing of poetry in Persian was established as a court tradition. The arts of the Safavid period show a far more unitary development than in any other period of Persian art, with the same style, diffused from the court, appearing in carpets, architectural tiles, ceramics, and manuscript illumination. Many of them had great love for Arabic and Persian literature. From Anis Press (Danville, CA, U.S.A.) AbeBooks Seller Since 19 June 2017 Seller Rating. All Arabic loanwords retained their original orthography whatever their pronunciation in Persian might be. Other works of Persian literature are untranslated and little known. 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