The battle, which went on to be known as the Battle of Lake Trasimene, saw an effective Carthaginian attack on Roman consul Flaminius and his army of about 25,000 men between the hills at Cortona and Lake Trasimene. A civil war breaks out following his death over making Rome a republic again. In addition, the Carthaginians had to abide by the Roman war indemnity that allowed Carthage Naval forces to deploy only 10 ships. Feb 1, 2013 218 BC- Hannibal's Movement By 146 BC, Carthage was destroyed by the Romans who became the rulers of the Mediterranean region. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. Battle of Trebia 218 bc. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. 15 Julius Caesar Facts You Might Not Be Aware Of, 15 Greatest Military Leaders of the Ancient World, 13 Fascinating Facts About Hannibal Barca, 11 Forgotten Kingdoms That Are Vanished From History, 13 Things About Davy Crockett You Should Know, 13 Battle of Bosworth Facts You Should Know, 15 Fascinating Facts You Didn't Know About Napoleon…. This rather cowardly act was of course not so popular among the Roman soldiers who gave Fabius the nickname of Cunctator which meant “delayer” since he seemed to avoid battle at a time when Italy was being beaten by its enemies. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘M… The Romans suffered such massive setbacks at the hands of the Carthaginians that they appointed a dictator as their commander in chief called Quintus Fabius Maximus temporarily. The Battle Of The Punic Wars 3659 Words | 15 Pages. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Without a doubt one of the biggest events during the Second Punic War was when Hannibal crossed the Alps to catch the Romans off guard. Scullard say that unlike earlier periods of Rome, the history of the period of the First Punic War comes from annalists who had contact with actual eye-witnesses. To further reinforce the Carthaginian attack, the Romans were also attacked at the rear by a hidden detachment led by Hannibal’s younger brother. The flash point for the wars was the island of Sicily. The Second Punic War was fought from 218 BC to 201 BC and is best remembered for the huge battles fought between the Carthaginians under Hannibal and the Romans under several different generals. This defeat had a huge psychological effect on the Romans for it sent ripples of panic through Rome, and they started having doubts about the very future of their city. The famous Roman general, Scipio Africanus, took a leaf out of Hannibal’s book to strengthen Roman intelligence. They brought into action too no art of war unknown to each other, but those which had been tried in the First Punic War; and so various was the fortune of the conflict, and so doubtful the victory, that they who conquered were more exposed to danger.”. Sempronius Longus’ 40,000 infantry positioned themselves in a triple line with 4,000 cavalry on the side. Hannibal had always been well informed of the situation in Rome, fed with secret information by his Gallic spies all over Rome. One of the biggest victories for Hannibal and his allies in the Second Punic War was at Cannae on the banks of the Aufidus in 216 BC. Fought in Italy in 218 BC, the Battle of Trebia was a major battle between the Carthaginians led by Hannibal and the Roman military under Sempronius Longus. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifte… When spies were caught, they would be punished harshly. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. Carthage was also forced to give up its fleet and pay a large indemnity to Rome in silver. First Punic War (264-241 BCE) – Rome wins Sicily, controls western Mediterranean Second Punic War (218-202 BCE) – Hannibal marches toward Rome; Scipio counterattacks Third Punic War (149-146 BCE) Carthage burned, made a Roman province A chance to pull together the key themes of the depth study, to allow students to engage with overarching general questions about the Second Punic War, similar to the style of essay questions that they will find in the examination. They adopted a strategy called Fabian Strategy according to which no active or open fighting was indulged in directly. The Roman military under Scipio had learned many lessons from Hannibal’s tactics and were ready to outwit and beat the Carthaginians in the final showdown. Rome controlled over two million square miles stretching from the Rhine River to Egypt and from Britain to Asia Minor. The Battle of Cannae was one of the greatest victories for Hannibal and his troops in the 2nd Punic War. After the First Punic War there was a temporary peace between Carthage and the Romans as both economies were dependent on the Mediterranean Sea as a commercial trading route from Eastern countries like Greece and Lebanon. 218 BCE. The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. These uprisings caused a major setback for the Romans. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. Naval Battles. There were three main fronts in this war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Romans in repeated battles; Hispania, where Hannibal’s younger brother defended Carthaginian colonial cities with gusto; and Sicily, where the Romans never lost their supremacy. The Punic allied cavalry attacked the much weaker Roman right wing in the battle, and then raced to the rear line to attack Rome’s Latin allies from behind, who were already engaged with Hannibal’s Numidian horse cavalry. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. 15 Things You Should Know About Hiroshima And Nagasaki, 14 Facts about W.EB. Military genius that Hannibal was, he had to face an eventual fall that led to a massive loss for the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. During this period, most of the major battles of the Second Punic War were fought in Sicily or Spain. The Battle of Zama became Hannibal’s downfall and dealt a decisive blow to the Carthaginian forces. Even though Hannibal’s army invaded Italy from the north and resoundingly defeated the Roman army in several battles, he could never achieve the ultimate goal of causing a political break between Rome and its allies. It began in Rome in 753 BC. This war was fought under the command of Hannibal who fought for Carthage while Romans fought under various generals. This agreement didn't cause any problems to either side at this point - Carthage's Spanish lines were much further south, while Rome was not involved in Spain at all at this point. But this turned out to be a masterstroke. The Socii Hannibal, on the other hand, had a mixture of African, Celtic, and Spanish infantry, 10,000 cavalry, and his notoriously efficient war elephants at the front. As compared to the mighty Romans, the Carthaginians were not at par as far as their armed forces were concerned. The Roman forces were led by consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus. Image Credit: shorthistory One of the biggest event of this war was Hannibal Barca’s supreme riseand subsequent defeat. Regardless, the march of Hannibal and his army is the stuff of legend to this day. All this tension culminated in a series of three wars fought between the two states from 264 BC to 146 BC. This battle led to a loss of 2700 cavalrymen and about 45,500 infantry soldiers for the Romans. Punic Wars > Second Punic War. Third Punic War + Third Punic War … Hannibal's losses in the Second Punic War effectively put an end to Carthage's empire in the western Mediterranean, leaving Rome in control of Spain and allowing Carthage to retain only its territory in North Africa. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was … Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. He was little known among the Romans at the beginning of the war, and had he not marched across the Alps – one of the bravest and cunning acts in that war – he may not have been able to deal blow after blow to the Roman defense especially at the beginning. Furthermore, Rome imposed a number of sanctions upon the Carthaginians which prevented them from making any further uprisings. To be used with the Vocabulary Summary and Timeline handout. After Hannibal crossed into Rome, he had to deal with the Roman general Tiberius Sempronius Longus who controlled a army of 45,000 men, roughly 10 to 15 thousand more men than his army. He got caught and had his hands cut off as a punishment. the Third Punic War, when … The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal as a competent leader and a cunning tactician as well as his eventual fall that became more and more inevitable as the war neared its decisive period. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Hannibal’s cavalry broke through the smaller numbers of the enemy and then attacked the bulk of the Romans from the front and sides. Rome entered the Second Punic War as the dominant city in Italy..., yet emerged as a world power'. The dictator continued with this strategy, resulting in an agitated Hannibal and arrest of many Carthaginians as prisoners. Bibliography Primary Sources Secondary Sources This chronology includes references to some of the other fronts on which Rome was fighting at the same time and the importation of the stone Great Mother from Asia Minor that Rome brought home to help her reverse the trend and win the war… Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. Overview of the Second Punic War. By 214 BC, Mago and Hasdrubal had levied new forces and decided to strike first. Carthaginians brought 80 elephants to the battle. His major victories that came later in the war were entirely dependent on intelligence information. His strategies saw him lure the Romans into traps and beat them at their own game. It was a complete success. Summary of the Work Plan: Causes of Wars Plan: Events in Greece Extension of the First Plan of the Work The True Theory of Historical Causes Causes of the Second Punic War Fabius Pictor on the Cause of the Punic War The Credibility of Fabius Pictor First Cause of the Second Punic War Second Cause of the War Hannibal's … Carthage meted out severe punishments to generals who failed in their mission, even if through events beyond their control, with several commanders suffering death by … By 206 BC, the war had reached a decisive point. Then by the shore of Lake Trasimene, he was all prepared for the enemy with his ambush. The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed, Top 10 Most Worshiped Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece…, Top 11 Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia, Top 14 Decisive Ancient Battles in History, Top 21 Fascinating Facts about the Ancient Persian Empire, Top 12 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Sumer, Top 13 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Babylonia, Top 12 Fascinating Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia. Du Bois Life and Contribution, 15 Most Disastrous Pandemics That Changed History, 15 Fearless Female Warriors of Ancient World. Historians say that at the end of the battle, 45,500 Roman infantry along with 2,700 cavalry had died, with additional numbers taken prisoner. With his genius, Hannibal Barca, though, gained much ground, but eventually lost to the Romans in this war. the Second Punic War, when Hannibal invades Italy. Publius Scipio moved quickly to counter the new offensive but was ambushed by the Punic cavalry, losing 2,000 men. One of the biggest event of this war was Hannibal Barca’s supreme rise and subsequent defeat. But eventually, Carthage ignored these sanctions and did raise an army about half a century later, which led to the Third Punic War. With the unprecedented support he received from his Gallic allies, Hannibal was always fed with important information about the goings-on in Rome. Two huge defeats at the hands of the Carthaginians rang an alarm bell among the Romans, and they decided it was time for immediate emergency action to ward off any further loss to the state. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthag… The key event of his time in charge was that in c.226 BC he signed a treaty with Rome agreeing not to interfere north of the River Ebro. The Roman Empire was one of the greatest civilizations in history. The world will remember Hannibal who displayed his ferocious attitude and war tactfulness and gave a very hard time to the mighty Romans that almost faced a grand defeat at the hand of the Carthaginians. ... the First Punic War against Carthage for control of the island of Sicily. The Gallic population mainly constituted of the Boii and Insubres. The indemnity also required Carthage to obtain permission from Romans before deploying armed forces and gathering them. Until the decisive moment arrived, the outcome of the war hung in the balance throughout a number of battles. These cookies do not store any personal information. Unlike most of the battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans fared better with cavalry and the Carthaginians had a larger number of infantry. Earlier, the Carthaginians had smartly captured a supply depot to serve as a diversion, luring the Romans into battle at the Trebia. Their support at the battle of Zama proved most pivotal to Roman success. Among the three Punic Wars, the second war can be termed as the bloodiest with maximum number of battles. this was the beginning of a real 'empire'. These wars were called the Punic Wars. The biggest boost to the Romans was the support of the Massyli tribe, which had originally fought along with the Carthaginians but sided with the Romans after the Battle of Ilipa. So much so that according to Livy, it was “the most memorable of all wars that were ever waged – the war which the Carthaginians, under the leadership of Hannibal, fought with the Roman people. the war left Rome in control - for the first time - of Cisapline Gaul, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain (which they decided to keep) - i.e. To fight off Hannibal’s so far successful tactics on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy – they did not engage in open battle with the opponent, but dueled on repeated occasions using smaller detachments. Rome was unable to drive him out, but he, also, was unable to get enough support from Carthage to make any progress against Rome. Hannibal probably knew this, and he was also convinced that his men wouldn’t be able to pierce the Roman defense, so he refused to lead his army into battle. The former territory of Carthage, Hispania soon became a part of the Roman Empire towards the end of this war. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. For never did any state or nation more efficient in their resources engage in contest; nor had they themselves at any other period so great a degree of power and energy. 2nd Punic War 218 bc - 201 bc. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. This timeline goes from 753 BC to 27 BC … The Romans completely destroyed them by 146 BC, thus taking a further step towards ultimate domination of the ancient Mediterranean world. He withdrew northward to rendezvous with Gnaeus Scipio's army, just as a third Carthaginian for… The questions remain to this day: Did Hannibal carelessly squander the power of Carthage? Rise and Fall of Hannibal. b. The war lasted for a whole 17 years with the ultimate victory of the Romans. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. Those 17 years of war were nothing if not eventful. At the end of the First Punic War, Sicily becomes Rome's first overseas province c. 240 BC Spain, with its mines of gold, silver and copper, is a hotly disputed region between Carthage and Rome Dude…. Key Events and Timeline. Important Events. He spent the period between the First and Second Punic Wars building up an empire in Spain, and preparing for the inevitable renewal of hostilities. The City was a Greek colony allied to Rome, which sparks the beginning of the Second Punic war. Ancient Rome and Carthage had a long history of conflict that lasted for more than a century. Key events during the life of Hamilcar Barca: All in all, the Romans suffered heavy losses with only 20,000 men out of 40,000 able to retreat to safety. Advancing into the territory of some of Rome's new Spanish allies near Acra Leuce they defeated the local tribal forces. 146 BCE. The Roman army constituted a force that was superior both in terms of arms and skill when compared to the Carthaginians. See Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce and 218–201 bce) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power. Hannibal dealt a huge blow by decimating most of the Roman army with minimal loss to his side. After repeated failed attempts at luring the Roman army under Flaminius on to the battlefield, Hannibal came up with a new strategy and had men marched around the enemy’s flank to cut them off from Rome. 753 BC: The “foundation of Rome” By the last century BC, Romans believed that … Nevertheless, its commercial enterprises expanded rapidly in the 2nd century bce, exciting the envy of Rome’s growing mercantile community. His three sons, Hannibal, Hasdrubal, and Mago, were Carthaginian generals in the Second Punic War. Julius Caesar becomes the first dictator of Rome and ends the Roman Republic. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. But when the Carthaginians started their campaign against ancient Rome, the Gallic tribes readily struck an alliance with them to fight the Romans at the front. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Hannibal, Hamilcar's son, lays siege to the Spanish City of Saguntum. The Roman legions, now commanded by Scipio Africanus, made a second … For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardiniaand, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. Polybius even noted: “How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae than those which preceded it can be seen by the behavior of Rome’s allies; before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman power.”. The agreement was to offer protection to these 10 ships from the pirates. Below, we have presented the war’s biggest events that readers must know. Fabius’ persistent digs at Hannibal’s forces marred the latter’s command abilities and resulted in many prisoners for the Romans. 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